Knowledge, Learning, Self-Learning, Machine Learning

Knowledge: facts, information, and skills acquired by a person through experience or education; the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. Knowledge acquisition involve complex cognitive processes: perceptioncommunication, and reasoning(Cavell, 2002, P238-266); while knowledge is also said to be related to the capacity of acknowledgement in human beings.

Situated Knowledge: Knowledge specific to a particular “neither fictions nor supposed facts.”  According to Haraway, science has a tendency to “used to signify a leap out of the marked body and into a conquering gaze from nowhere.” This is the “gaze that mythically inscribes all the marked bodies, that makes the unmarked category claim the power to see and not be seen, to represent while escaping representation.”

God Syndrome: eager to represent while “escaping representation” (Haraway,  at the same time. In order to avoid this, it is important to emphasize the importance of subject.

Hyper-situational: trial and error. knowledge too closely related to experience and cannot be transferred.

Radical Constructivism: Language frequently creates the illusion that ideas, concepts and even whole chunks of knowledge are transported from a speaker to a listener … rather each must abstract meanings, concepts and knowledge from his or own experience” (von Glasersfeld, 1991, p. xiv). Radical constructivists are those who “have taken seriously the revolutionary attitude pioneered by Jean Piaget …… the concept of knowledge as an adaptive function ….that cognitive efforts have the purpose of helping us cope in the world of experience, rather than the traditional goal of furnishing an “objective” representation of a world as it might “exist” apart from us and our experience” (von Glasersfeld, 1991, ibid).

Learning as pursuit of needs: In Freudian psychoanalysis, the pleasure principle (GermanLustprinzip) is the instinctive seeking of pleasure and avoiding of pain in order to satisfy biological and psychological needs. Humans are constantly learning.

Learning is intentional: With Maturana, he argues that “consciousness” is an emergent process that comes of “knowing with another” in consensual domains where “self’ and “other” are distinguished and where the experience of being conscious (self-aware) is “knowing with oneself” (for more on this genesis, see Pask, 1981, Maturana, 1989, Scott, 1996, 1999a). In conversation, linguistic exchanges do not “transmit knowledge”, rather, they provoke participants into becoming informed of each other’s “informings”. “having knowledge” is understood as a process of knowing and coming to know. It is not the “storage” of “representations”. However, it is of course still useful to construct external representations of knowledge and to distinguish between different kinds of knowledge.

Coming into being: knowledge as emergent out of a conversation.




Stanley Cavell, “Knowing and Acknowledging”, Must We Mean What We Say?(Cambridge University Press, 2002)

Introduction: Development and the Anthropology of Modernity”. Escobar, Arturo. Encountering Development: The Making and Unmaking of the Third World.

Laplanche, JeanPontalis, Jean-Bertrand (1988) [1973]. “Pleasure Principle (pp. 322-5)”The Language of Psycho-analysis (reprint, revised ed.). London: Karnac Books. ISBN 978-0-946-43949-2ISBN 0-94643949-4.

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